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Definitions
INDEX

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

ABI Application Binary Interface
ACIA Asynchronous Communications Interface Adapter
ACM Association for Computing Machinery
AEC Architecture, Engineering, Construction
AFP AppleTalk Filing Protocol
AI Artificial Intelligence
Term used to describe wide range of computer applications that duplicate some aspect of human intelligence.
AIX Advanced Interactive eXecutive (IBM's version of Unix)
ANSI American National Standards Institute.
An organization responsible for approving U.S standards in many industries including computers and communication.
AOCE Apple Open Collaborative Environment
API Application Programming Interface / Interface API
A set of callable routines that a programmer uses to interact with an application

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APL A Programming Language
APPC Advanced Program-to-Program Communications (IBM)
APPN Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking (IBM)
APSE Ada Programming Support Environment
ARA AppleTalk Remote Access
ARM Advanced RISC machine; Asynchronous Response Mode
ASCII American Standard Code for Infromation Interchange.
A standard character to number encoding system widely used in the computer industry.
ASIC Application-Specific Integrated Circuit
ASMP Asymmetric Multiprocessing
ASPI Advanced SCSI Programming Interface
Software interface between SCSI device drivers and the SCSI interface card. Designed to increase compatibility between SCSI devices and computers.
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode / Mode ATM
ATP AppleTalk Transaction Protocol
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AUI Attachement Unit Interface
Refers to 15-pin D connectors associated with Ethernet transceivers.
A/UX Apple's version of Unix
AVI Audio Video Interleave (Microsoft)
BBLT Bus Block Transfer
BBS Bulletin Board Service / Serveur BBS (babillard)
A computer service that allows users to post messages or download information.
BCD Binary-Coded Decimal
BDOS Basic Disk Operating System
BIOS Basic Input / Output System
BISDN Broadband ISDN
BITBLT Bit Block Transfer
BLMC Buried Logic Macrocell
BLOb Binary Large Object
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BNC A connector for coaxial cables
Bps Bytes per second.
A measure of the actual data transmission rate, used mostly to measure modem data transfer rate.
BSD Berkeley Software Distribution
A version of UNIX that was developed at the university of California at Berkeley.
CACP Central Arbitration Control Point
CAD Computer-Aided Design
CADD Computer-Aided Design and Drafting
CAE Computer-Aided Engineering
CAI Computer-Aided Instruction
CAM Computer-Aided Manufacturing; Common Access Method
CAMMU Cache/Memory Management Unit
CAS Column-Address Strobe; Communications Applications Specification
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CASE Computer-Aided Software Engineering
CATV Community Antenna Television(cable TV)
CBIOS Compatibility BIOS
CBLT Character Block Transfer
CCITT Comité Consultatif Internationale de Telegraphique et Telephonique, or Consultative Commitee on International Telegraphy and Telephony.
CCD Charge-Coupled Device
CDE Common Desktop Environment (COSE)
CD-I Compact Disc-Interactive
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CDPD Cellular Digital Packet Data
CD-R Compact Disc - Recordable
CD-ROM Compact-Disc-Read-Only-Memory
CEMM Compaq Expandable Memory Manager
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CGA Color Graphics Adapter
CISC Complex Instruction-Set Computer
CLI Call Level Interface; Command-Line Interpreter
CMC Common Messaging Calls (XAPIA)
CMOS Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
CORBA Common Object Request Broker Architecture (OMG)
COSE Common Open Software Environment
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check
CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection
CUA Common User Access
DA Desk Accessory (Apple); Destination Address
DAC Digital-to-Analog Converter
DAT Digital AudioTape
Cassette tapes that are able to store digital audio data in read and write mode.
DBMS Database Management System
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DDBMS Distributed DBMS
DCE Data Communications Equipement; Data Circuit-terminating Equipment; Distributed Computing Environment (OSF)
DCL Digital Command Language (DEC)
DDE Dynamic Data Exchange
DDL Document Description Language; Data Description Language
DES Data Encryption Standard
DFS Distributed File System.
A file service that joins the local file system of several file server machines, making the file system available to all DFS client machines.
DHCP Dyanamic Host Configuration Protocol.
A service that lets clients on a LAN request configuration information.
DIF Data Interchange Format
DIME Dual Independent Map Encoding
DLL Dynamic Link Library
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DMA Direct Memory Access
DMI Desktop Management Interface (DMTF)
DMTF Desktop Management Task Force
DNS Domain Name System / Protocole DNS
A TCP/IP protocol for discovering and maintaining network resource information distributed among different servers.
DOE Distributed Objects Everywhere (Sun)
dpi dots per inch
A measure of screen and printer resolution
DPMI DOS Protected Mode Interface
DRAM Dynamic RAM
DS/DD Double - Sided, Double-Density
DSOM Distributed System Object Model (IBM)
DSP Digital Signal Processor
DSS Decision Supprt System; Digital Signature Standard
DTE Data Terminal Equipment
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DTMF Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency
DVI Digital Video Interactive
ECC Error-Correction Code
ECL Emitter-Coupled Logic
ECM Emiter-Coupled Logic
ECMA European Computer Manufacturers Association
EDI Electronic Data Interchange/ échange de données électronique.
EEMS Enhanced Expanded Memory Specification
EEPROM Electrically Erasable Programmable ROM
EGA Enhanced Graphics Adapter
Video graphics adapter similar to cga but with better resolution and increased colors.
EIS Executive Information System
EISA Extended Industry Standard Architecture
EMS Expanded Memory Specification
ENS Entreprise Network Services (Banyan Vines)
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EPLD Electrically Programmable Logic Device
EPROM Erasable Programmable ROM
Read Only Memory that can be programmed and deleted using UV light.
EPS Encapsulated PostScript
ER Entity Relationship
ERLL Enhanced Run Length Limited
ESDI Enhanced Small Device Interface
FAT File Allocation Table
FDDI Fiber Distributed Data Interface
FDHD Floppy Disk High-Density
FDM Frequency-Division Multiplexing
FDx Full-Duplex
FIFO First In, First Out
FLOPS Floating-Point Operations Per Second
4GL Fourth-Generation Language
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FPD Full-Page Display
FPGA Field Programmable Gate Array
FPI Floating-Point Interface
FPU Floating-Point Unit
FTP File Tranfer Protocol.
A protocol which allows a user on one host to access and transfer files to and from another host over a network.
GAL Generic Array Logic
GB GigaByte
approximately one billion bytes
GDDM Graphical Data Display Manager
GDI Graphical Device Interface
GEM Graphics Environment Manager
GFLOPS GigaFLOPS
billion floating-point operations per second
GIF Graphics Interchange Format
An image compression algorithm that facilitates the transfer of high quality images over a network.
GIS Geographic Information System
An applications program written to store and access geographical maps on the computer system.
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GPF General Protection Fault
GPI Graphics Programmable Interface
GPIB General-Purpose Interface Bus
GPU Graphics Processing Unit
GUI Graphical User Interface
A way of interacting with computer users through graphical windows that use menus and icons in a logical manner to perform a specific task.
HAL Hardware Abstration Layer
HDLC High-Level Data-Link Control
HDTV High-Definition Television
A high resolution technology that uses approximately 1,200 lines of resolution giving an image extra clarity.
HDx Half Duplex
HFS Hierarchical File System (Apple)
HIPPI High Performance Parallel Interface
A Parallel interface standard created by ANSI.
HLLAPI High-Level Language Application Programmable Interface
HMMU Hardware Memory Management Unit
HOB High-Order Byte
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HPFS High Performance File System: (OS/2)
HPGL Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language
HP-IB Hewlett-Packard Interface Bus
HPPI High Performance Peripheral Interface
HP/UX Hewlett-Packard's version of Unix
HSM Hierarchical Storage Management
HSYNC Horozontal Synchronization
HTML Hypertext Markup Language.
The coding that World Wide Web browsers read to create Web pages.
HTTP Hypertext Transport Protocol; also Hypertext Transfer Protocol.
The protocol used to transfer World Wide Web data across the Internet.
IAC Interapplication Communication (Apple)
ICE In-Circuit Emulator
IDA Intelligent Drive Array
IDAPI Independent Database API (Borland)
IDE Integrated Drive Electronics
A standard for connecting integrated drives with a certain controller to the AT bus.(low cost alternative to SCSI)
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IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
An engineering organization that sets many standards, especially standards for LAN network system.
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force
A task force formed to define protocol standards used for the Internet.
IFF Interchange File Format
IGES Initial Graphics Exchange Specifications
IMAP Interactive Mail Access Protocol
INT Interrupt
IP Internet Protocol; also Internetwork Protocol.
A set of network protocols defined by the Us Department of Defence.
IPC InterProcess Communications
IPX/SPX Internet Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange
IR Instruction Register
IRC Interrupt Request.
ISA Industry Standard Architecture
A standard for the CPU architecture, support chips and the clock on Intel based computers.
ISAM Indexed Sequential-Access Method
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network / Réseau numerique a integration de services
A method of transmitting data digitally over telephone lines.
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ISO International Standards Organization
A International Standards Organization that sets technical standards, especially for network protocols.(ISO / OSI).
ISP Internet Service Provider.
A company that provides Internet services.
ISR Interrupt Service Routine
ISV Independent Software Vendor
IT Information Technology
ITSEC Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria (European)
IXC Interexchange Carrier;also called IEC
A long distance telephone company.
JIS Japan Industrial Standard
JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group
Formed standard for image storage. Allows the storage of large images in a compressed lossy form.
KB KiloByte
1024 bytes
KBps KiloBytes per second
Kbps Kilobits per second
Thousand of bits per second.
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LAN Local-Area Network / Réseau local
A network system in a limited geographical area that does not use long distance carriers such as telephone connections. The area is usually limited to the cable length.
LATA Local Access and Transport Area.
LDT Local Descriptor Table
LIFO Last In, First Out
LIPS Logical Instructions Per Second
Lisp List Processing
LLC Logical Link Control
LOB Low-Order Byte
LSB Least-Significant Bit (or byte)
LSD Least-Significant Digit
LSI Large-Scale Integration
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LZW Lempel-Ziv-Welch
MAC Media Access Control
MAN Metropolitan-Area Network
A group of LAN networks under a distance of fifty kilometers connected together.
MAP Manufacturing Automation Protocol
MAPI Messaging API (Microsoft)
MASM Macro Assembler (Microsoft)
MB MegaByte
Approximately one million bytes(1,048,576).
Mb MegaBit
Approximately one million bits
MCA Micro Channel Architecture (IBM)
MCGA Multicolor Graphics Array
MCI Media Control Interface
MDA Monochrome Display Adapter
MDI Multiple Document Interface
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MDS Macintosh Develpoment System; Microprocessor Development System
MFC Microsoft Foundation Classes
MFLOPS MegaFLOPS; Million Floating-Point Operations Per Second
MFM Modified Frequency Modulation
MFS Macintosh File System
MHS Message Handling Service
MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface
International standard that permits musical instruments to be controlled from a computer display (screen).
MIMD Multiple Instruction Multiple Data
MIME Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.
An extension to Internet e-mail which provides the ability to transfer non-textual data, such as graphics, audio and video.
MIPS Milion Instructions Per Second
A way of measuring the amount of instructions a CPU can execute in a second.
MIS Management Information System
MMU Memory Management Unit
MNP Microcom Networking Protocol
MPC Multimedia PC
A standard set by the multimedia PC council in order for a PC to support multimedia applications. These standards are a minimum requirement.
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MPEG Moving Pictures Expert Group
MPU Microprocessor Unit
MPW Macintosh Programmer's Workshop
MRCI Microsoft Real-Time Compression Interface
ms MilliSecond
one thousandth of a second
MSB Most Significant Bit (or Byte)
MSI Medium-Scale Integration
MTBF Mean Time Between Failures
MVS Multiple Virtual Storage (IBM)
NAPLPS North American Presentation-Level Protocol Syntax
NAU Network Access Unit; Network Addressable Unit
NCSC National Computer Security Center
NDIS Network Driver Interface Specification
NDP Numeric Data Processor
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NDS NetWare Directory Service (Novell)
NetBIOS Network Basic Input/Output System
NetBEUI NetBIOS Extended User Interface
NFS Network File System (Sun)
NIC Network Information Center / centre d'information sur le reseau
A NIC provides information, assistance and services to network users
NIS Network Information Service; formerly Yellow Pages (Sun).
A protocol for remote distribution of common configuration files.
NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology
NIU Network Interface Unit
NLM NetWare Loadable Module
NMI NonMaskable Interrupt
NNTP Network News Transport Protocol.
A protocol for the distribution, retrieval and posting of Usenet articles through high-speed links available on the Internet.
NOS Network Operating System
ns Nanosecond
one billionth of a second.
NTFS Microsoft Windows NT File System
NTSC National Television Standards Commitee
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OCR Optical Charcater Recognition
OCX OLE Control
ODAPI Open Database API
ODBC Open Databse Connectivity (Microsoft)
ODBMS Object DBMS; Object-oriented DBMS; also called OODBMS
ODI Open Data-Link Interface
ODMA Open Document Management API
ODMG Object Database Management Group
OEM Original-Equipment Manufacturer
OLE Object Linking and Embedding
OLTP On-Line Transaction Processing
OMG Object Management Group
ONC Open Network Computing (Sun)
OOFS Object--Oriented File System
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OOP Object-Oriented Programming
OOPL Object-Oriented Programming Language
OPROM Optical Programmable ROM
ORB Object Request Broker
OS Operating System
OSF Open Software Foundation
OSI Open System Interconnection
OSPF Open Shortest Path First
OS/2 Operating System/2 (IBM)
OWL Object Windows Library (Borland)
PABX Private Automatic Branch Exchange(now synchronous with PBX)
PAL Phase Alternate Line; Programmable Array Logic;Paradox Application Language (Borland)
A European standard for color T.V. It uses 625 scan lines per frame, 25 frames per second at a 2:1 interlace.
PBX Private Branch Exchange
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PC CARD A removable device, such as a modem or network interface card, designed to fit into a PC Card slot. Formerly called a PCMCIA.
PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect
A standard for the local bus started by Intel.
PCL Printer Control Language (Hewlett-Packard)
PCM Pulse Code Modulation
PCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card International Association.
PLEASE SEE PC CARD.
PDA Personal Digital Assistant
A term used by Apple Computer for a portable device capable of transmitting data.
PDES Product Data Exchange Specification
PDL Page-Description Language; Program Design Language (Ada)
PDN Public Data Network
PDO Portable Distributed Objects (Next)
PEEL Programmable Electrically Erasable Logic
PEM Privacy Enhanced Mail / courrier a sécurité renforcée
PERT Program Evaluation and Review Technique
PGA Pin Grid Array; Programmable Gate Array
PGL Professional Graphics Language
PHIGS Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics Standard
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PIA Peripheral Interface Adapter
PIF Program Information File
PIM Personal Information Manager
PIN Positive Intrinsic Negative; Personal Identification Number
PLA Programmable Logic Array
PLC Programmable Logic Controller
PLD Programmable Logic Device
PLE Programmable Logic Element
PL/1 Programmable Language/1
PMMU Paged Memory Management Unit
POP Point-of-Presence / point de connexion
A term used to represent a switching dial in facility location.
POS Programmable Option Select
POSE Picture-Oriented Software Engineering
POST Power-On Self Test
POTS Plain Old Telephone Service.
The basic telephone service, with no added features.(call waiting...)
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PPP Point-to-Point Protocol / protocole PPP
A protocol for framing IP packets and transmitting them over a serial line.
PRML Partial-Response Maximum Likelihood
PROM Programmable Read-Only Memory
A memory where the data can be programmed in the manufacturing process and in the field.
QEMM Quarterdeck Expanded Memory Manager
QIC Quarter Inch Cartridge
RAID Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks
A system where several inexpensive disk drives are put together to create a redundant data storage system.
RAM Random-Access Memory
A volatile memory where data can be written to and read from. It is a temporary storage mainly used to execute computer programs.
RAMDAC Random-Access Memory Digital-to-Analog Converter
RAS Row-Address Strobe
RDBMS Relational Database Management System
RFS Remote File System (AT&T)
RGB Red-Green-Blue
A color model that uses these three colors to produce all colors.
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RIP Raster-Image Processor;Routing Information Protocol; Remote Imaging Protocol.
A protocol used for the transmission of IP routing information.
RISC Reduced-Instruction-Set Computer
A type of microprocessor where machine instructions may be executed without decoding.
RLE Run Length Encoding
RMW Read, Modify, Write
ROM Read-Only Memory
A type of memory chip where data has been programmed in the manufacturing process and cannot be changed thereafter.
RPC Remote Procedure Call / invocation de procédures a distance
RSA Rivest-Shamir-Adleman
RTF Rich Text Format
RTN Recursive Transition Network
RTV Real-Time Video
SAA Sysytem Application Architecture (IBM)
SANE Standard Apple Numeric Environment
SASI Shugart Associates System Interface
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SCSI Small Computer System Interface
SDK Software Development Kit
SDLC Synchronous Data-Link Control
SGML Standard Generalized Markup Language
SHTTP Secure HTTP
SIMD Single Instruction, Multiple Data
SIMM Single In-Line Memory Module
SIP Single In-Line Package
SIPP Single In-Line Pin Package
SLIP Serial line Internet Protocol / protocole SLIP
A protocol used to run IP over serial lines, such as telephone circuits or RS-232 cables, interconnecting two systems.
SMB Server Message Block
SMP Symmetric Multiprocessing
SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol / protocole SMTP
A protocol used to transfer electronic mail between computers. It is a server to server protocol.
SMPTE Society of Motion Picture & Television Engineers
A professional association for setting standards for motion.
SNA System Network Architecture (IBM)
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SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol.
A protocol used for communication between management consoles and network devices.(The Netopia ISDN Router)
SOM System Object Model (IBM)
SPI Service Provider Interface
SQL Structured Query Language
SRAM Static RAM
SSA Serial Storage Architecture
SSI Small-Scale Integration
SS/SD Single-Sided, Single-Density
SVGA Super VGA
TaIAE Taligent Application Environment
TASM Turbo Assembler (Borland)
TcI Tool control language
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.
An open network standard which defines how devices from different manufacturers communicate with each other over one or more interconnected networks.(internet)
TCSEC Trusted Computer Systems Evaluation Criteria (Orange book)
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TB TeraByte
approximately one trillion bytes
TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol.
A protocol used to transfer files between IP nodes.
TIFF Tagged Image File Format
TIGA Texas Instruments Graphics Architecture
TOP Technical Office Protocol
TRAM Transputer Module
TSR Terminate-and-Stay Resident
TTL Transistor-Transistor Logic
TWAIN Interface standard for imaging peripherals; also Toolkit Without An
Important Name
UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver / Transmitter
A microchip interfaced to a microprocessor to enable serial communications.
UAE Unrecoverable Applications Error
UDP User Datagram Protocol / Protocole UDP
A TCP/IP protocol that describes how packets reach applications in destination nodes.
UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply
A backup device with batteries to power computers or communication equipment in the event of a power failure. Used mostly for World Wide Web servers.
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URL Uniform Resource Locator / adresse URL
An absolute location for a given piece of information, used by web browsers to locate information.
USART Universal Synchronous / Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter
UUCP Unix-to-Unix Command Protocol.
This was initially a program run under the UNIX operating system that allowed one UNIX system to send files to another UNIX system via dialup phone lines.
VAN Value-Added Network
VAP Value-Added Process
VAR Value-Added Reseller
VBL Vertical Blanking Interrupt
VBX Visual Basic Control
VCPI Virtual Control Program Interface
VERONICA Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Netwide Index to Computerized Archives.
A service that maintains an index of titles of terms on Gopher servers, and provides keyword searches of those titles.
VESA Video Electronics Standards Association
An association founded to standardize the electrical, programming, and timing features of computer video displays.
VFS Virtual File System
VGA Video Graphics Array / Video Graphics Adapter
VIDC Video Controller
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VIM Vendor-Independent Messaging
VIS Video Information System
VLIW Very Long Instruction Word
VLSI Very Large-Scale Integration
VME Virtual Machine Environment
VMS Virtual Memory System (DEC)
VRAM Video RAM
RAM microchips used for the video graphics adapter.
VSAM Virtual Storage Access Method (IBM)
VSYNC Vertical Synchronization
WAIS Wide Area Information Server; also Wide Area Information Service.
A distributed information service which offers simple natural language input, indexed searching for fast retrieval and a "relevance feedback" mechanism which allows the results of initial searches to influence future searches.
WAN Wide-Area Network.
A network that consists of nodes connected by long distance transmission media (i.e. telephone lines).
WIMP Windows, Icons, Menus, and Pointing device
WISC Writable Instruction Set Computer
WORM Write-Once, Read Many Times.
A computer program which replicates itself and is self-propagating.
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WOSA Windows Open Services Architecture
WWW World Wide Web
WYSIWYG What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get
XA Extended Architecture
XAPIA X.400 API Association
XCMD External Command:
A user-defined command that uses built-in-Macintosh code to extend the features of HyperCard
XGA Extended Graphics Array
XMS Extended Memory Specification:
A set of rules defining a software interface that provides DOS applications with access to extend memory
XON/XOFF Telecommunications control protocol
XOR Exclusive-OR
XPG X/Open Portability Guide
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ZBR Zone-Bit Recording
ZCAV Zone Constant Angular Velocity
ZIF Zero Insertion Force
ZIP Zig-Zag In-line Package / Pin


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